ABOUT CHICKEN MANURE
Fertilizer Effect of Fermented Chicken Manure
Fermented chicken manure is comprehensive nutrient source for crops. It includes macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium, in addition to trace elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese and boron. These elements are included in both organic and inorganic state; similar to nitrogen, the component included as an organic state changes in the available form to the crops while decomposing organic matters. As a consequence, it gets used in crops gradually. Components mainly included as an inorganic state, like potassium, are utilized in crops immediately. Carbon dioxide generated while decomposing the fermentation of chicken manure in the soil, promotes the assimilation of the crop. In addition, fermented chicken manure contains an enzyme, such as hormones and uricase in order to promote crop growth.
Different Effects in Fermented Chicken Manure and Chemical Fertilizers
1. Slow-Acting Fertilizer Effect
With fermented chicken manure, the effect of nutrient supply to crops appears gradually. By successive application, the organic matter, difficult to decompose, gets accumulated in the soil, and the accumulation of nutrient amount gradually grows. Such cumulative effects are not found in chemical fertilizers.
2. Proceeding Aggregation of Soil
By applying fermented chicken manure to soil, microorganisms decompose the organic matter contained in the fermented chicken manure. However hard organic matter remains in the soil and becomes humus. The humus unites particles in the soil, and it proceeds to aggregation of the soil. As the aggregation advances, it creates a relatively large gap between the crumbs. Consequently, the soil becomes soft and it makes it easier to plow. Moreover, the roots can stretch. In addition, the gap between the crumbs drains the excess water and improves the air permeability. It increases the nutrient and moisture absorptions from the roots. As a result, it improves overall growth of the crop. Water retention is maintained since agglomerates have a small gap inside. Those effect created by fermented chicken manure cannot be obtained by chemical fertilizer.
3. Improving Biological Properties of Soil
The application of fermented chicken manure increases the activity of soil animals such as earthworms, mites and springtails breaking down the fermented chicken manure. Consequently, fermented chicken manure becomes susceptible to degradation by microorganisms. The organic matter contained in the fermented poultry manure becomes food to increase the number of microorganisms in the soil. Thriving activities of microorganisms do not only promote decomposing originally applied fermented chicken manure, but also the accumulated organic matters. We call this “Priming Effect (Detonator Effect)”. Many of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are released into the soil by this effect.
4. Suppressing Soil Pests and Diseases
There is a report about a successful suppression of soil pests as a result of increasing microbial diversity in the soil by applying fermented chicken manure. For example, decreasing numbers of nematodes harm, in addition to generation of tomato bacterial wilt disease, cucumber vine wilt, and radish chlorosis.
5. Increasing Coercive Fertilizer Effects of Soil
By applying fermented chicken manure to soil, the effect that holds the soil nutrients (ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc.) increases. With accumulation of organic matters, the effect that holds cations in the soil (cation exchange capacity = CEC) increases. In this way, if CEC increases, fertilizer component is less likely to be washed away by rainwater, and coercive fertilizer effects of the soil increases.
6. Increasing Effects of Phosphoric Acid
Volcanic ash soil and acidic soil are widely distributed in Japan. They contain a lot of active aluminum. Consequently, they bring failure to the roots of the crop. When phosphoric acid is combined with aluminum, phosphate becomes a sparingly soluble and poorly absorbed into the crop. However, if fermented chicken manure is applied, chelate compound (made by humic acid, organic acids, sugar, etc. combined with active aluminum) reduces the adverse effects of active aluminum. Therefore, application of fermented chicken manure increases the effects of phosphate fertilizer.
1. Rice 300 ~ 500kg/1000m²
Among organic fertilizers, fermented chicken manure can be expected as a substitute for chemical fertilizers in rice cultivation. The fertilizer efficiency is created by high concentration of nitrogen, and it is likely to be denitrifying nitrate nitrogen in the paddy field. The alternative amount of fermented chicken manure can be obtained by subtracting 2% from the total nitrogen. The expected fertilizer efficiency of nitrogen is about 30~35kg in 1t/10a application. Hence it is possible to reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer. If fertilizer effect is expected, it is necessary to apply fermented chicken manure before 1 month prior to planting. It is desirable to have enough rake crowded fermented in the soil in order to avoid reduction failure.
2. Root Vegetables 800kg/1000m²
For root vegetables, place heaping full along the ridge between fertilizer, potatoes or stocks.
Root vegetables such as radish, carrot, burdock, and turnip extend their roots straight down in the ground. Therefore, place fertilizer away from the roots. It is recommended to apply it in two rows. Dig a trench in the center, put the chicken manure, mix, flatten the ground, and sow the seeds. That way, there is no poultry manure directly under the root, and it allows them to grow straight. For example, radish would not become bifurcated nor have sharp bends. They would extend the fine roots from the main root, and suck necessary nutrients from the savings of chicken manure fertilizer. The fertilizer savings would work well for those who soon need to plant new batch immediately after putting away previous ones.
As for potatoes, plant shallow about a bowl heaping of fertilizer in the middle of seed potatoes at 50 cm intervals. This is a measure of about 2% nitrogen (It varies depending on the fertilizer component of the chicken manure). By the time of harvest, potato roots are entangled and trawl around the mass of poultry manure. However, since it makes the growth slower than the chemical fertilizer, you cannot use chicken manure in areas growing a spring potatoes in the paddy field where there is a rice planting in May. It would not be a problem for fall potatoes. Taro also allows putting the poultry manure in the middle of the shares and stock. When interleaving in large quantities to the original seed potatoes, roots receive aboveground a concentration failure and burnt fertilizer timid. Therefore, put a lot of fertilizer. In addition, gathering the soil after seeding fertilizer would make effective top dressing.
3. Leafy Vegetables 1000kg/1000m²
For leafy vegetables, apply to the entire surface.
Leafy vegetables are often seeded. Prepare soil by overall application and soil incorporation 7 days before seeding. It is effective to apply fertilizer to the whole surface, because Japanese mustard spinach, bok choy, and spinach are planted or sown in a relatively elaborate state. It is also true to onions. However, too much fertilizer would prone to illness, become loose onion, perishable after summer. Broad beans are not very crowded at sown, however apply fertilizer on whole surface also. By doing so, it saves time and effort. Broad bean requires a lot fertilizer, therefore put some extra. Spinach may require a 300kg fertilizer about per 10a if the dry chicken manure of nitrogen about 4%. However, the soil gets hardened if large quantity is used every year. Caution is necessary.
4. Fruit Vegetables 1000kg/1000m²
For fruit vegetables, use away from a strain.
After planting fruit vegetables such as cucumber and eggplant, melon, pumpkin and green pepper, place poultry manure between stocks or away from the stock. Ideally, put 1m away from seedling if space allows. That way, it is easy to change allocation of crops after planting. You can also take your time to work on the field. However, because roots grow faster than we imagine, fertilize within a few days after planting. Fruit vegetables like cucumber stretch their roots where there is chicken manure; on the contrary if poultry manure is placed directly by the root, failure occurs.
5. Fruit Trees
For fruit trees, do not worry about late effectiveness. Use as lime supplement.
For fruit trees, do not worry about late effectiveness. Use as lime supplement. As for fruit trees, if nitrogen component is supplied more than necessary, it creates the adverse effects on the colored and sugar content of the fruit. Poultry manure rich in fertilizer component is less preferred. In fact, oranges (particularly mandarin orange) and grapes do not use much chicken manure. However, there is a way to use chicken manure among such. For example, put fermented chicken manure 15kg per Wenzhou mandarin orange tree and leave poultry manure there. Because it is difficult to plow the soil often, chicken manure remains. In the orchard, there is a tendency that there is not enough lime. According to such method, chicken manure can be used effectively. Late effectiveness of chicken manure is only 2kg per 1ton, thus it is too little to cause a problem. Chicken manure seems to work well in the spring fertilizer of March.